Description of Language Skills

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Language skills are defined in terms of levels of proficiency A1-C2 presented in the document “A Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment”(CEFR).

For further information, guidance of the proficiency levels across a range of languages, please see the following:


A: Basic Knowledge 

A1 - Breakthrough

A2 - Waystage


B: Independent User 

B1 - Threshold

B2 - Vantage


C: Experienced User 

C1 - Effective Operational Proficiency

C2 - Mastery 



Can understand and use familiar words and very basic simple phrases about everyday life or familiar topics. Can introduce him/herself and tell about him/herself, the family, the place of living,the people he or she knows and some other very familiar topics, as well as can ask and answer simple questions about these topics. Can interact in a very simple way provided the other person speaks slowly, clearly and is prepared to help. Can write a short, very simple text and can fill in forms with personal details.


Can understand simple sentences and the highest frequency phrases related to everyday life, e.g., information about him/herself and the family, shopping, local area, employment, as well as can ask and answer rather simple questions. Can communicate in simple everyday situations requiring a simple exchange of information on familiar topics. Can tell in simple sentences about him/herself, the family, local area, his educational background, his/her present or previous job. Can write rather simple notes or a rather simple letter.


Can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar topics related to work, school, leisure time, etc. Can understand texts that contain mainly high frequency everyday or job-related language. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken and can enter unprepared into a simple conversation on topics that are familiar or of personal interest. Can write a simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences, events and wishes, as well as provide a short justification and explanation of his or her own viewpoint and ambitions.


Can understand the main ideas in difficult texts on both concrete and abstract topics, including discussions in his/her professional area. Can interact rather fluently and with spontaneity with native speakers. Can present clear and detailed descriptions on a wide range of topics, related to his/her field of interest, sustaining his/her views, giving the advantages and disadvantages. Can write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to his/her interests, highlighting the most significant issues.


Can understand a wide range of difficult extended texts and speeches and understand the subtext. Can understand television programmes and films without much effort. Can express him/herself appropriately and fluently for social, educational and professional purposes. Can express him/herself in clear, well-structured text, expressing her/his point of view in a style appropriate to the reader in mind.


Has no difficulty in understanding any kind of spoken or written language. Reconstructing different arguments and viewpoints, can summarise information from various verbal and written sources and present it in a coherent way. Can express him/herself clearly, absolutely fluently and precisely, conveying finer shades of meaning, in any conversation or discussion even in complicated situations. Can write clear text with logical structure in an appropriate style.


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